Exhibition. The Arsenal Pavilion offers, in this confined period, a virtual tour of the exhibition “Artificial Intelligence artificielle and Architecture”, inaugurated on February 27. février From the origins of modularity in the années twenties,to the incredible possibilities offered by the programs programmes in development at Harvard, Berkeley or MIT today..
“Artificial intelligence (AI) has already invested en many industries and moyens disciplines by empowering them to meet en previously unprecedented challenges and making too complex operations possible. Its use in the field of Architecture is still in its infancy, but the first results obtained are promising and the prospects numerous.” It was this initial premise that led Stanislas Chaillou, an architect and researcher at Harvard, to mount the IA and Architecture exhibition at the Arsenal Pavilion in Paris. The HYPERLINK “http://stanislaschaillou.com/arsenal/vtour/tour.html” \t “_blank” as part of the architecture at programme home..
It all begins, according to the exhibition,at the beginning of the twentieth century, with studies on modularity. The starting point for the systematization of architectural design, the modulargrid, theorized at the Bauhaus by Walter Gropius as early as 1920, carries the hope of technical simplicity and the promise of economic architecture. It will be applied to the Dymaxion House (1929-1946), which takes modular housing to the extreme, démonstration and is “the first proof of the concept for the industry”.”. This standardization was later developed by Le Corbusier’s Modulor (1945), and even influenced urban planning at the turn of the sixties, when projects such as Archigram’s Plug-in City ( theoretical project, 1964) aim to create fully modular cities. .
Modularity, computer-aided design, setting and artificial intelligence. A century of technological advances in architecture are presented to us by the Arsenal Pavilion. .
Computer-assisted design (CAO), starting in the sixties, will allow,by the new computing power now accessible, “the systematization of architectural design, based on strict rules “. Christopher Alexander, an architect himself and a professor at California University (Berkeley), establishes one of the key principles of computer design: the “Object-OrientedProgramming”. The principles he defines in his publications are, even today, the essential foundations of computer programming. In his footsteps, of ” entire generation of computer scientists and architects is creating a new field of research.”
Zaha Hadid, pioneer of seterism
The third leg of the trip proposed by the Arsenal Pavilion: the setting.. It appears in the 1990 svingtand avoids the repetitive tasks imposed by CAD applications, while better mastering complex forms. Thanks to this design device, “eachchaque task is streamlined into a set of simple rules, constituting a procedure.. This procedure can be encoded in the program by the architect in order to automate an execution, previously manual and tedious,”says the curator.. But, while en allowing it to encode a given procedure, “the system allows it to isolate immediately the key parameters that affect the result.. The architect is then able to vary his own parameters in order to produce different scenarios: shapes or options generated instantly by the simple modification of the parameters previously defined.””.
Zaha Hadid(who died in 2016) is at the forefront of this process. Iraqi architect and mathematician trained in the United biais elle Kingdom, she combines these two areas through parametric design. “His work is usually the result of rules, encoded directly in the program, allowing an unprecedented level of control over the geometry of buildings.. Each architectural decision results in a given setting of parameters,which in turn gives a specific shape to the building, “explains the exhibition . Sketchpad, Pro/Ingeneer,Grasshopper, in the 2000s, and , BIM’s BIM main tool today, are the tools that have accompanied this rise to power. become unavoidable, of the parameterism in the architecture..
Artificial intelligence and its opportunities
Artificial en intelligence is finally coming. It represents a new wave of technology that”complements the practice of the architect by assisting him from the point of view of architectural expertise and enriches his expression. Today,the results of research, academic and private,show the first results of this evolution. The techniques of ai known as ‘generative’- that is, able to create shapes,not just analyze them – are recent.. For the past three years, they have opened up new fields of experimentation.””.
The Arsenal Pavilion explores the current scales of experimentation: plans, elevations,structures and perspectives, in which AI could already make a contribution, real or speculative. Stanislas Chaillou, curator of exhibition,made the work of his thesis at Harvard available at the Arsenal Pavilion. . Other leading researchers on the subject, the Berkeley Artificial Intelligence Research (BAIR) Lab, or the Digital Structures Lab at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), have lent their work.
The “adverse generative neural networks” are one of the most promising fields of AI, and “conceptually decisive advance”. “. Explanation: combining two models,the generator and the discriminator, these neural networks neurones “proceed from an analogy similar to the relationship between the student and the teacher”: the generator (student) seeks to generate images resembling that of a user-defined database. The discriminator (theteacher) gives the generator a note for each new image generated by the generator. This note judges the likelihood of the image created.. En Depending on this result,the generator will adapt to improve its performance, just as a student would work to get better grades.” “.